U.S. Army Corps of Engineers CRD C48, “Permeability of Concrete”, Aviles Engineering Corp., Houston, USA
Two concrete samples containing Xypex Admix and an untreated control sample were tested for water permeability. Both the treated and untreated samples were subjected to a pressure of 150 psi / 1.04 MPa (350 ft. / 106.7 m water head). Results showed moisture and permeated water throughout the
untreated sample after 24 hours. However, the
Xypex Admix samples showed no leakage, and
water penetration of only 1.5 mm / 0.06 inches after 120 hours (5 days).
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers CRD C48, “Permeability of Concrete”, Setsco Services, Pte Ltd., Singapore
Six Xypex Admix-treated and six untreated concrete samples were tested for water permeability. Pressure was gradually increased over five days and then maintained at 7 bars (224 ft. / 68.3 m water head) for 10 days. While the six reference samples showed water leakage beginning on the fifth day and increasing throughout the test period, the Xypex Admix samples showed no water leakage at any time during the test.
ACCI Water Permeability Test, “Water Permeability of Concrete”, Australia Centre of Construction and Innovation, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
Concrete samples containing Xypex Admix NF at a dosage rate of 0.8% and 1.2% were tested for water permeability against control samples. All the samples were subjected to a pressure of 10 bars (100 meters / 328 ft. water head) for 2 weeks. Water permeability coefficients were calculated and the Xypex Admix treated concrete showed significant reduction in water permeability by up to 93% at a dosage rate of 1.2%.
ASTM C 39, “Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens”, Kleinfelder Laboratories, San Francisco, USA
At 28 days, the compressive strength test of the concrete containing Xypex Admix measured 7160 psi / 49.5 MPa as compared to the reference sample at 6460 psi / 44.5 MPa (a 10% increase).
Freeze / Thaw Durability
ASTM C 666, “Freeze/Thaw Durability”, Independent Laboratory, Cleveland, USA
After 300 freeze/thaw cycles, the Xypex Admix-treated samples indicated 94% relative durability.
Potable Water Exposure
NSF 61, “Drinking Water System Component-Health Effects”, NSF International, Ann Arbor, USA
Exposure testing of potable water in contact with Xypex-treated samples indicated no harmful effects.
CSN 73 1326, “Measuring Loss of Surface Due to Sulphate Attack of Concrete Treated with Admix C-1000/Admix C-1000 NF”, Betonconsult, Building Materials Testing Laboratory, Prague, Czech Republic
Concrete specimens treated with Admix C-1000 at 1% and 2%, and Admix C-1000 NF at 0.5% and 1% were cast along with non-treated concrete specimens. The specimens were exposed to a highly concentrated sulphate solution (i.e. 36,000 mg/ℓ) for 4 months and samples were periodically weighed to determine mass loss. The Admix treated samples recorded a mass loss between 5 and 50 g/m2 and showed no surface deterioration, while the non-treated specimens measured an average mass loss of 4,860 g/m2 with significant surface deterioration.
Acid Resistance of Mortar Containing Xypex Admix C-1000 NF”, Construction and Maintenance Technology Research Center (CONTEC), Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology (SIIT) - Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand
An acid testing regime was part of an extensive program to determine the benefit of the Xypex Admix C-1000 NF dosed at 1% to improve the durability of concrete. Several comparative mixes were utilized in this evaluation, including: a plain Portland cement and a 30% fly ash mix. Cured samples were exposed to 5% H2SO4; the pH value of this acid solution was 0.25 and never greater than 0.54 pH. In this extremely acidic, corrosive environment, at 12 weeks the Admix samples reduced the weight loss by 48% compared to controls of the cement-only mortar, and 53% in the fly ash specimens.
“Sulfuric Acid Resistance Test”, Aviles Engineering Corporation, Houston, USA
Concrete containing Xypex Admix at different dosage rates including 3% specimens were tested against untreated control samples for sulfuric acid resistance. After immersion in the sulfuric acid, each sample was tested for weight loss on a daily basis until a weight loss of 50% or a definite response trend was obtained. The percentage weight loss of the samples containing Xypex Admix tested significantly lower than the control samples.
ASTM C1585 and ASTM C1202, “Evaluation of Self-healing Capability of Self-compacting Concrete Made with Blast-furnace Slag Cements Activated by the Xypex Crystalline Catalyst”
Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil
Portland, blast furnace slag and slag-modified Portland concrete samples, treated with 2.5% Admix C-500, were evaluated for self-healing capabilities. Microcracks were induced by loading to 90% of ultimate compressive strength. Cracked samples were then immersed in water to trigger self-healing after 28, 56 and 84 days. Strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity tests were used to determine mechanical recovery; sorptivity and rapid chloride permeability were used to evaluate watertightness recovery. Results substantiated the ability of Xypex Admix to provide self-healing of cracked concrete.
Scanning Electron Microscopy
SEM “Microscopic Examination of Crystalline Products in Three Xypex Admix Modified Concrete Mortars”, Australian Centre for Construction Innovation, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
Slag and fly ash blended cement samples were treated with Xypex Admix and examined for evidence of crystalline growth at ages ranging from 8 months to 2 years. Samples were sliced and/or split and examined at magnifications between 500x and 5000x. Characteristic Xypex crystalline growth was observable on all Xypex treated samples, providing evidence of Xypex crystalline reactions with fly ash and slag blended cements.